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An Introduction to Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP)

Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), also referred to as ventricular natriuretic peptide or B-type natriuretic peptide, is a hormone secreted by the human heart. Cardiomyocytes or cardiac muscles in the left ventricle secrete BNP. The left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to different parts of the body and therefore controls blood pressure and volume. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), also referred to as ventricular natriuretic peptide or B-type natriuretic peptide, is a hormone secreted by the human heart. Cardiomyocytes or cardiac muscles in the left ventricle secrete BNP. The left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to different parts of the body and therefore controls blood pressure and volume. BNP (brain natriuretic peptide) is produced by the heart and helps to control blood volume and pressure.

What is bnp test:  An increase in BNP and NT-proBNP facilitates fluid retention and volume expansion in the veins and arteries which can cause the heart to stretch, pump more blood, and cause heart failure when levels are excessive. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a hormone secreted by the heart. Once released in sufficient quantities, BNP causes the blood vessels to stretch, the pump of the heart to increase, passing more fluid and maintaining the body’s fluid balance. Cardiologists measure BNP levels to diagnose and determine treatment for heart-related ailments.

Glial fibrillary acidic protein is a special type of cell protein that belongs to the intermediate filament protein family. GFAP, along with the other three non-epithelial cells belonging to the same protein family, regulates the functions and structure of the cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton can be imagined as an extremely thin layer inside a cell and a scaffold-like structure. The scaffold-like structure provides a backbone for a cell and forms many channels within itself. The channels are essential for cells to communicate with each other and for transporting many things in some distance away from cells’ nuclei. The GFAP proteins help maintain the structure of the scaffold so that cells can continue to perform their duties efficiently, which benefits our everyday lives in many ways. GFAP is a very important protein. Think of the cytoskeleton as a highway system and the intermediate filaments like small roads that branch off the large highways. Intermediate filaments are located within cells, which means they help coordinate intracellular transportation. Intermediate filaments are also located in keratinocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes, where they help keep cell shape and structure while also transporting necessary materials throughout cells.

Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a type III intermediate filament protein belonging to the intermediate filament protein family. The GFAP gene in humans encodes the GFAP protein. The gene is located on chromosome 17. Several CNS cell types that include ependymal cells and astrocytes express GFAP proteins during development. Other human cells, such as keratinocytes, Leydig cells, chondrocytes, and osteocytes, also express GFAP. GFAP, along with the other three non-epithelial cells belonging to the same protein family, regulates the functions and structure of the cytoskeleton. Although many studies use GFAP as a cell marker, we have still not completely understood its role in the body.

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