Solar panel technology is advancing rapidly with greater efficiency and lower prices resulting in a huge increase in demand. However, despite the massive advancements in technology, basic solar panel construction hasn’t changed much over the years. Most solar panels in Gurgaon are still made up of a series of silicon crystalline cells, sandwiched between a front glass plate and a rear polymer plastic back-sheet supported within an aluminium frame. Once installed, solar panels are subjected to severe conditions over the course of over 25 years lifespan. Extreme variations in temperature, humidity, wind, and UV radiation can put enormous stress on a solar panel. Most panels are well-engineered to withstand extreme weather. Some panels can still fail in several ways including water ingress, cell micro-fractures, and potential induced degradation. That is the reason why it is vital that solar panels are manufactured using only the highest quality components.
Solar power installed capacity has increased by more than 18 times from 2.63GW in March 2014 to 49.3GW at the end of 2021. In FY22, till December 2021, India has added 7.4GW of solar power capacity, up 335% from 1.73GW in the previous year. It would actually be a great idea to understand how solar cells are made, which play a critical role in the functioning of efficient solar panels.
What constitutes solar cells?
Efficient solar panels from the best solar EPC company in Gurgaon are made of quality photovoltaic cells, or PV cells, which are made using silicon crystalline wafers similar to the ones used in computer processors. The silicon wafers can be either polycrystalline or monocrystalline and are produced using several different manufacturing methods.
- Polycrystalline silicon cells– Lower efficiency and lowest cost
- Cast monocrystalline cells– High efficiency and lower cost
- Monocrystalline silicon cells– Highest efficiency and highest cost
How solar panels are made?
Solar panels are made using the six main components that are listed below and assembled in advanced manufacturing facilities with extreme accuracy.
- SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS
Solar PV cells convert sunlight directly into DC electrical energy. Its performance is determined by the cell type and characteristics of the silicon used, with the two main types being monocrystalline and polycrystalline silicon. They come in a variety of sizes and configurations which offer different levels of efficiency and performance.
- TOUGHENED GLASS
The front glass sheet protects the PV cells from the weather and impact from hail or airborne debris. The glass is typically high-strength tempered glass which is 3.0 to 4.0 mm thick and is designed to resist mechanical loads and extreme temperature changes. The IEC minimum standard impact test requires solar panels to withstand an impact of hail stones of 1-inch diameter traveling up to 60 mph. In the event of an accident or severe impact, tempered glass is also much safer than standard glass as it shatters into tiny fragments rather than sharp jagged sections.
- EXTRUDED ALUMINIUM FRAME
The aluminium frame plays a critical role in protecting the edge of the laminate section, housing the cells, and providing a solid structure to mount the solar panel in position. It can be silver, or anodized black, and depending on the panel manufacturer, the corner sections can either be screwed, pressed, or clamped for strength.
- ENCAPSULATION- EVA FILM LAYERS
Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) is a specially designed polymer highly transparent (plastic) layer used to encapsulate the cells and hold them in position during manufacture. These must be extremely durable and tolerant of extreme temperature and humidity.
- POLYMER REAR BACK-SHEET
It acts as a moisture barrier and final external skin to provide both mechanical protection and electrical insulation. It is typically white in colour; but is also available as clear or black depending on the manufacturer and module.
- JUNCTION BOX- DIODES AND CONNECTORS
It is a small weatherproof enclosure located on the rear side of the panel. It is needed to securely attach the cables required to interconnect the panels. It is of utmost importance as it is the central point where all the cell sets interconnect and must be protected from moisture and dirt.
SOLAR PANEL- ASSEMBLY AND MANUFACTURING:
Solar panels are assembled in advanced manufacturing facilities using automated robotic equipment and sensors to precisely position the components with extreme accuracy. Through the manufacturing process, the panels and cells are checked and inspected using advanced optical/imaging sensors to ensure all the components are located correctly and the cell wafers, which are very delicate, are not damaged or cracked during the process.
No doubt, the process of building an efficient solar panel is quite fascinating as it involves a variety of technical parts, aligned in perfect consonance. Solar power is completely clean, as it produces no air pollution, no water pollution, and no greenhouse gas effect. It is carbon-free, and no-harmful emissions are released when electricity is being produced by sturdy solar panels in Delhi. This is why, in order to reap maximum benefit out of your installed solar system, it is inevitable to look into the quality of the solar panel installed in it.